sábado, 9 de junio de 2012

Física fácil - Ley De Gay-Lussac

Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac fue un químico y físico francés. Es conocido en la actualidad por su contribución a las leyes de los gases. En 1802, Gay-Lussac fue el primero en formular la ley que lleva su nombre y que nos relaciona de forma directamente proporcional la presión (P) de una masa constante de gas con la temperatura (T, siempre medida en Kelvin), con la fórmula: P / T = K.

Por lo que podemos extrapolar que si la temperatura de las moléculas del gas aumenta, la presión que ejercerá el mismo sobre las paredes del recipiente que lo contiene también lo hará. De igual modo, si reducimos la temperatura, reduciremos obviamente la presión.

Ejemplo práctico de la Ley de Gay-Lussac:

Tenemos una olla a presión (olla Express) con agua (cuya temperatura de ebullición es de alrededor de 100ºC), la cerramos herméticamente y la ponemos al fuego, después de un rato de calentamiento, el agua, al llegar a los 100ºC llega al estado de ebullición (aquella temperatura en la cual la materia cambia de estado líquido a estado gaseoso), En este momento entra en efecto la Ley de Gay-Lussac; las moléculas del gas se mueven muy rápidamente chocando unas con otras, esos movimientos hacen que también choquen contra las paredes de la olla lo que origina un incremento en la presión. Para reducir dicha presión, una válvula libera el vapor cuando esta llega al límite establecido; permitiendo que el vapor escape y por ende reduciendo la presión y la temperatura.

Os dejo un vídeo donde se observa muy bien el efecto de esta ley:



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Carlos Julian dijo...

Desde mi punto de vista este es uno de los grandes aportes que hizo Gay Lussac para la contribución de la leyes de los gases
aquí dejo un artículo que hice hace unas semanas sobre él.

Click Aquí para leerlo